ICE | The Israel Chemist and Engineer

6 The Israel Chemist and Engineer Issue 1, September 2015, Tishrei 5776 Scientific Articles I. Introduction: the pro and cons of magnetic resonance Magnetic resonance (MR) is one of the most profound scientific observation methods. MR is concerned mainly with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electron spin resonance (ESR). It has a broad range of applications from chemical structure determination to medical imaging and basic physics. From a scientific standpoint, MR has been at the center of at least seven Nobel prizes in physics [1; 2; 3; 4] , chemistry [5; 6] , and medicine [7] . From an industrial standpoint, MR is a multibillion industry aimed primarily at a wide range of medical (magnetic resonance imaging, MRI) and chemical (NMR and ESR spectrometers) applications. Despite the success of MR methodologies, their application is typically limited by sensitivity (the number of species that can be detected), by their coarse spatial resolution in imaging applications, and by the high cost and complexity of MR technology. Overcoming these barriers will pave the way for transformative developments in the experimental sciences. Our group is trying to address all of these issues, ranging over the whole field of magnetic resonance, although currently we are primarily focusing on methodologies and applications related to electronspin resonance. In this short reviewof activities,wepicked some samples of our work related both to basic methodological developments in ESR, and how they can be applied to practical scientific, technological, and medical applications. New Methodologies and Applications in Electron Spin Resonance - from Wound Healing to Quantum Computing Aharon Blank Schulich Faculty of Chemistry, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 32000, Haifa, Israel Email: Abstract: Magnetic resonance (MR) is well-known in the world of chemistry, mainly due to its superb analytical capably to decipher the structure of molecules. This method, which can be applied in connection with either certain nuclei or unpaired electrons, originated from basic physics exploration in the 1940's, and has since expanded to address a variety of applications in diverse fields ranging from chemistry to medicine. However, despite its wide commercial and scientific success, MR still suffers from significant limitations of low sensitivity, coarse spatial resolution in imaging, and high complexity and cost of its system. In this short review, I will describe some of the recent efforts in my lab, aimed at overcoming these limitations, which have resulted in unique experimental capabilities, offering ultra-high sensitivity down to the single electron spin level, as well as sub-micron imaging resolution. These capabilities enable one to address unique applications inmaterials- and life-sciences, ranging from oxygen measurements in cells to basic experiments in quantum computation. In addition, we are developing other systems that are far less complex and costly than the conventional ones, aimed at specific medical applications. This direction, which is only in its infancy, may lead in the near future to a situation where MR technology can serve as a basis for simple and affordable medical instruments, used by physicians and caregivers at the clinic level. Aharon Blank is an associate Prof. at the Schulich Faculty of Chemistry, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology. Born in 1972, graduated from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in 1992 with degrees in mathematics, physics and chemistry; completed his Masters degree at Tel Aviv University in 1997 in electrical engineering - physical electronics under the supervision of Prof. Raphael Kastner and finished his PhD in 2002 at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in physical chemistry - electron spin resonance (ESR), under the supervision of the late Prof. Haim Levanon. During this time he served 9 years in the IAF as a Scientific Officer and also as a CTO in a medical device company, developing miniature intravascular MRI. Following his PhD he spent 3 years at Cornell University as a postdoc in the group of Prof. Jack Freed (on a Rothschild post-doctoral fellowship), developing the subject of ESR microscopy, and since 2005 he is a facultymember at the Technion. Aharon'smain interests today are the development and applications of newmethodologies in the field of magnetic resonance. His group works on miniature sensitive ESR resonators, small, self-contained NMR and ESRmedical tools, and ESR probes for micro- and nano-imaging. As noted above, the most fundamental limitation of magnetic resonance, including ESR, is the low sensitivity. Let us first remind ourselves what ESR is and the origins of its sensitivity problems.