ICE | The Israel Chemist and Engineer

48 The Israel Chemist and Engineer Issue 1, September 2015, Tishrei 5776 Article on History of Chemistry Three Chemists Who Found Refuge in Turkey. Bob Weintraub * and Geoffrey Boner ** * Director of the Library, Sami Shamoon College of Engineering, Beersheva and Ashdod, Israel. ** Director, Institute of Hypertension and Kidney Diseases (Nephrology), Rabin Medical Center - Beilinson Campus. Center, Petah Tikva, Israel, (Retired 2002) and Associate Professor, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Israel (Retired 2003). Geoffrey Boner completed his medical training in South Africa and after immigrating to Israel, specialized in Nephrology. He is now retired after having been the Director of the Department of Nephrology and Hypertension at the Rabin Medical Center (Beilinson Hospital) and Associate Professor at the Sackler Faculty of Medicine at the Tel Aviv University. His main interest is the prevention and treatment of chronic kidney disease, especially secondary to diabetes mellitus. He has an interest in the History of Nephrology in Israel. Bob Weintraub is the Director of the Library, The Sami Shamooon College of Engineering, Ashdod and Beersheva. He holds the Ph.D. in Physical Chemistry from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Diploma in Library Science from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. He has an interest in the history of chemistry and in scientific and technical librarianship. Fritz Arndt: “The Leader of Modern Chemistry in Turkey”; First proposed the “Resonance Hybrid” idea. Developed the “Arndt-Eistert Reaction.” Felix Haurowitz : Discovered that the human fetus contains a different kind of haemoglobin from that of an adult and made other fundamental discoveries about haemoglobin; First proposed the “Template Theory” of the immune system. Kurt Steinitz: “Father of Haemodialysis (Artificial Kidney) in Israel”; Pioneer in the development of the clinical laboratory in Israel. Between the years 1933 and 1945, the Republic of Turkey invited first-rank persecuted scholars to participate in the reform of Turkish higher education. In this way some 190 victims of National Socialism found refuge in Turkey. 1 Arnold Reisman: “In this case, the Nazis’ plans to rid themselves of Jews, beginning with intellectuals with Jewish roots or spouses, became awindfall for Atatürk’s determination to modernize Turkey. The select group of Germans and later Austrians with a record of leading-edge contributions to their respective disciplines came to Turkey to transform Turkey’s system of higher education and the new Turkish state’s entire infrastructure, with the Reichstag’s understanding. Occurring before the activation of death camps, this arrangement served the Nazis’ aim of making their universities, professions, humanities, and their arts Judenrein , cleansed of Jewish influence and free from intelligentsia opposed to fascism. Because the Turks needed the help, Germany could use this situation as an exploitable chit on issues of Turkey’s neutrality during wartime. Thus, the national self-serving policies of two disparate governments served humanity’s ends during the darkest years of the 20 th century.” Fritz Arndt (1885-1969): Fritz Arndt was born in Hamburg. He earned his doctorate in Chemistry at the University of Freiberg in 1908 and then held a series of positions in German universities. In 1915, Arndt accepted a position at the Imperial Ottoman University of Constantinople. In 1918 he returned to Breslau, where he remained until 1933, when dismissed under National Socialism. At the invitation of Sir Robert Robinson, he accepted a position at the Department of Organic Chemistry at Oxford. In 1934, he accepted the chair of General Chemistry at the University of Istanbul. He remained in Turkey until his retirement in 1955 and returned to Hamburg. 2 Lale Aka Burk: 3 “For the author, a chemist whose native country is Turkey, Fritz Arndt holds a special place. He is remembered with great affection as the “the leader of modern