27 The Israel Chemist and Engineer Issue 1, September 2015, Tishrei 5776 Scientific Articles Arcadi Boix-Camps began his career as a perfumer at Firmenich, the 2nd biggest fragrance and flavor company, and for the last 23 years he is the president and master perfumer of Auram International Co., Ltd., a modern company enjoying a world respected technology active in high level creative fragrances both for functional and fine toiletries, sweet flavors and savory flavors. Auram is also top supplier of agarwood oils from different origins being the largest producer in the world and produces its own essential oils mostly used in house to make specialties. Arcadi is an author of many publications on perfumery and wrote several books, e.g. “Perfumery Techniques in Evolution” providing a constructive and open analysis of new perfumery materials and a profound knowledge in the use of perfumery materials in both new and traditional formulas. Incense is an aromatic substance which is obtained from certain resinous trees and largely employed for purposes of religious worship. The word is also used to signify the smoke or perfume arising from incense when burned. In ancient times, incense was furnished by two trees, viz. the Boswellia sacra of Arabia Felix, and the Boswellia papyrifera of India. Mention is made of it in the Bible: “Why do I need the Frankincense that comes from Sheba, and the good cane from a distant country? Your burnt offerings are not acceptable, and your sacrifices are not pleasant to Me”, 1 and “Spikenard and Saffron, Calamus and Cinnamon, with all Frankincense trees, * CIC; email@example.com ** Auram International Co., Ltd.; www.auraminternational.com ; aboix@ auraminternational.com Sesquiterpenoides - the holy fragrance ingredients Michael Zviely * and Arcadi Boix-Camps ** Myrrh and Aloes, with all the chief spices”. 2 It was procured from the bark much as gum is obtained at present. To enhance the fragrance and produce a thicker smoke various foreign elements were added. These ingredients generally numbered four, but sometimes as many as thirteen, and the task of blending them in due proportion was assigned under the old- law ordinances to particular families. One important group of fragrance ingredients are found in incense of different origins – sesquiterpene related molecules. Sesquiterpenes are a class of terpenes that consist of three isoprene units and have the molecular formula C 15 H 24 . Sesquiterpenes may be acyclic or contain rings, including many unique combinations. Biochemical modifications such as oxidationor rearrangement produce the related sesquiterpenoids. Sesquiterpenes are found naturally in plants and insects. Frankincense is the gum or resin of the Boswellia Serrata tree, used for making perfume and incense. The Hebrew word for it is lavonah לבונה , which means “white,” referring to the gum’s color. The essential oil of frankincense is produced by steam distillation of the tree resin. The oil’s chemical components are 75% mono- terpenes, sesquiterpenes, monoterpenols, sesquiterpenols, and ketones. It has a good balsamic and sweet fragrance. Some Frankincense characteristic sesquiterpenoids are shown below: Name of Ingredient Structure Organoleptic Characteristics d-Viridiflorol OH Sweet, green, herbal, fruity, tropical, minty 1S-cis-Calamenene Herbal, spicy Michael Zviely completed his Ph.D. and Post-Doc at the Hebrew University. He then headed a research group for TAMI (ICL) for almost tenyears, and then spent eleven years as Global VP for Research, Development and Science of Frutarom Ltd. After that, he worked three years in China as the CTO for Research and Development of O'Laughlin Industries Ltd. (Shanghai), a company specializing inaromachemicals-flavorandfragrance ingredients, botanical extracts, cooling agents and UV sunscreen ingredients, followed by a period as VP for Research and Development of Virdia Inc. (HCL CleanTech Ltd.) in Israel and in the USA, on lignocellulose originated bio-materials. In parallel, he held a visiting professorship at Jiangnan University in China for five years. Today Dr. Zviely is a consultant on technology and strategy of specialty chemicals (fragrance and flavor ingredients).